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Exploring the Study of Peptides in Gut Function

By: Guest

This all-encompassing guide delves into the most recent breakthroughs in animal-based research studies focusing on peptides that may have the potential to improve gut function, besides the following:

  • Possibly lowering the inflammation in the intestines
  • Possibly facilitating the repair and regeneration of the gut
  • Possibly preventing the development of ulcers

Explore gut function and peptide research as this article delves into the mechanisms, potential, and properties of the most noteworthy peptide-based adjuvants. Learn more about these compounds by reading this article.

BPC-157 Peptide

BPC-157 is a pentadecapeptide synthesized in the 1990s. It is known amongst researchers for its purported potential to promote healing in various tissues, including the gastrointestinal tract. It has been hypothesized to interact with vasodilators, growth factors, vascularization, and neurotransmitter receptors. It has been speculated that BPC-157 may enhance the healing process after gastrointestinal surgery (anastomosis healing), alleviate short bowel syndrome, and protect against ulcers.

KPV Peptide

KPV, which stands for lysine-proline-valine, is a portion of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) located in the C-terminal region. It may have anti-inflammatory properties in various tissues, including digestive tract cell cultures and murine colitis models. According to the theory, it seems to do this by inhibiting the multiplication of immune cells and the production of inflammatory mediators. Research indicates a reduction in inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including ulcerative colitis examples.

VIP Peptide

It is believed that Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP), which is a naturally occurring peptide consisting of 28 residues and belonging to the secretin/glucagon family, is a neurotransmitter that might control some of the processes of the gut, such as acid secretion and motility. It was discovered in 1970 and is generated by nerve and immune cells. It has been theorized to act on the digestive system as well as other parts of the body. Studies suggest that it may have an anti-inflammatory effect, making it a possible research candidate in the context of colitis.

Research Peptides: What are they?

Research suggests that peptides are important chemical compounds found in all living creatures. They comprise around fifty amino acids connected by peptide bonds, often arranged linearly. Peptides may be similar to proteins, except that proteins have longer chains of amino acids.

Investigations purport that peptides, despite their relatively tiny size, might be involved in a wide variety of physiological activities at an essential level. Because they may particularly target receptors, they have become an important topic of attention in research. Recent developments in peptide synthesis have aimed to produce analogs of endogenous molecules while simultaneously enhancing these compounds’ stability, selectivity, and effectiveness.

Peptides and Gut Function

There is a possibility that research peptides might be practical in alleviating a variety of inflammatory disorders that are associated with the gastrointestinal (G.I.) tract. These conditions include ulcerative colitis and gastritis. In addition, findings imply that several chemicals may potentially hasten the healing process in many areas of the gastrointestinal tract, including the small intestine (after successful surgical resection). The following is a list of probable ways by which peptides may assist in the improvement of the ailments that were previously mentioned:

  • Through the modulation of NO levels, healing peptides like BPC-157 have been proposed as a potential means of enhancing the healing process of the esophagus and stomach. An increase in blood flow and the development of new blood vessels are effects of the vasodilator known as NO.
  • BPC-157 has been hypothesized to prevent stomach ulcers by interacting with dopamine and adrenaline signaling pathways.
  • By inhibiting the production of interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-12 (IL-12), tumor-necrotizing factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and interferon-gamma, the anti-inflammatory tripeptide KPV has been theorized to help decrease inflammation in the digestive tract, primarily in the large intestine (in models of ulcerative colitis).
  • According to research, a different peptide known as ARA-290 seems to potentially reduce TNF-alpha levels in colitis models, resulting in anti-inflammatory properties.

ARA-290 Peptide

Cibinetide and helix B surface peptide (HBSP) is another name for ARA-290, a synthetic example of a peptide consisting of 11 amino acids. The helix B section of erythropoietin (EPO) that interacts with the innate repair receptor (IRR) is the unique portion of EPO intended to be replicated by this particular apparatus. In contrast to EPO, the peptide has been speculated to have a specific affinity for the IRR, which might allow it to perform its function without causing erythropoiesis to be induced.

ARA-290 has been subjected to thorough evaluation in research studies, which have indicated its potential and efficacy in reducing issues linked to type 2 diabetes and small-fiber neuropathy in sarcoidosis.

Preclinical research using mouse models of colonic inflammation has ascertained that it might inhibit the activation of macrophages and lower the release of inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-alpha and IL-1beta.

LL-37 Peptide

LL-37, sometimes called cationic antimicrobial peptide 18 (hCAP18), is the only cathelicidin composed of 37 amino acids. It is an element of the innate immune response, derived from the CAMP gene and responsible for its production. By breaking the cell membranes of bacteria, LL-37 suggests antibacterial capabilities that are speculated to be effective against a wide range of bacteria.

It is believed that LL-37 may have a role in mucosal defense in the gut. The fact that it is expressed in normal gastric tissue and increased in response to infections such as Helicobacter pylori is evidence of its function in the gastrointestinal tract’s immune system. Its potential is highlighted because the peptide has been hypothesized to have a bactericidal effect against H. pylori. This action might be practical in managing infections and disorders connected with them, such as gastritis and ulcers.

Research suggests that LL-37 may be a good candidate for targeted adjuvants to strengthen the gut’s defensive systems against pathogens. Scientists speculate this is because it is specific, and its expression may increase during infection.

Visit corepeptides.com if you are a researcher interested in further studying peptides’ potential in gut health. Please remember that none of the compounds mentioned in this article have been approved for human consumption and should not be acquired by unlicensed individuals.

References

[i] Jelovac, N., Sikirić, P., Rucman, R., Petek, M., Perović, D., Konjevoda, P., Marović, A., Seiwerth, S., Grabarević, Z., Sumajstorcić, J., Dodig, G., & Perić, J. (1998). A novel pentadecapeptide, BPC 157, blocks the stereotypy produced acutely by amphetamine and the development of haloperidol-induced supersensitivity to amphetamine. Biological psychiatry, 43(7), 511–519. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0006-3223(97)00277-1

[ii] Djakovic, Z., Djakovic, I., Cesarec, V., Madzarac, G., Becejac, T., Zukanovic, G., Drmic, D., Batelja, L., Zenko Sever, A., Kolenc, D., Pajtak, A., Knez, N., Japjec, M., Luetic, K., Stancic-Rokotov, D., Seiwerth, S., & Sikiric, P. (2016). Esophagogastric anastomosis in rats: Improved healing by BPC 157 and L-arginine, aggravated by L-NAME. World journal of gastroenterology, 22(41), 9127–9140. https://doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v22.i41.912

[iii] Hsieh, M. J., Liu, H. T., Wang, C. N., Huang, H. Y., Lin, Y., Ko, Y. S., Wang, J. S., Chang, V. H., & Pang, J. S. (2017). Therapeutic potential of pro-angiogenic BPC157 is associated with VEGFR2 activation and up-regulation. Journal of molecular medicine (Berlin, Germany), 95(3), 323–333. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00109-016-1488-y

[iv] Sikirić, P., Mazul, B., Seiwerth, S., Grabarević, Z., Rucman, R., Petek, M., Jagić, V., Turković, B., Rotkvić, I., Mise, S., Zoricić, I., Jurina, L., Konjevoda, P., Hanzevacki, M., Gjurasin, M., Separović, J., Ljubanović, D., Artuković, B., Bratulić, M., Tisljar, M., … Sumajstorcić, J. (1997). Pentadecapeptide BPC 157 interactions with adrenergic and dopaminergic systems in mucosal protection in stress. Digestive diseases and sciences, 42(3), 661–671. https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1018880000644

[v] Sikiric, P., Hahm, K. B., Blagaic, A. B., Tvrdeic, A., Pavlov, K. H., Petrovic, A., Kokot, A., Gojkovic, S., Krezic, I., Drmic, D., Rucman, R., & Seiwerth, S. (2020). Stable Gastric Pentadecapeptide BPC 157, Robert’s Stomach Cytoprotection/Adaptive Cytoprotection/Organoprotection, and Selye’s Stress Coping Response: Progress, Achievements, and the Future. Gut and liver, 14(2), 153–167. https://doi.org/10.5009/gnl18490

[vi] Lojo, N., Rasic, Z., Zenko Sever, A., Kolenc, D., Vukusic, D., Drmic, D., Zoricic, I., Sever, M., Seiwerth, S., & Sikiric, P. (2016). Effects of Diclofenac, L-NAME, L-Arginine, and Pentadecapeptide BPC 157 on Gastrointestinal, Liver, and Brain Lesions, Failed Anastomosis, and Intestinal Adaptation Deterioration in 24 Hour-Short-Bowel Rats. PloS one, 11(9), e0162590. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0162590

[vii] Luger, T. A., & Brzoska, T. (2007). alpha-MSH related peptides: a new class of anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating drugs. Annals of the rheumatic diseases, 66 Suppl 3(Suppl 3), iii52–iii55. https://doi.org/10.1136/ard.2007.079780

[viii] Iwasaki, M., Akiba, Y., & Kaunitz, J. D. (2019). Recent advances in vasoactive intestinal peptide physiology and pathophysiology: focus on the gastrointestinal system. F1000Research, 8, F1000 Faculty Rev-1629. https://doi.org/10.12688/f1000research.18039.1

[ix] Lee, A. C., Harris, J. L., Khanna, K. K., & Hong, J. H. (2019). A Comprehensive Review on Current Advances in Peptide Drug Development and Design. International journal of molecular sciences, 20(10), 2383. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20102383

[x] Wang, L., Wang, N., Zhang, W., Cheng, X., Yan, Z., Shao, G., Wang, X., Wang, R., & Fu, C. (2022). Therapeutic peptides: current applications and future directions. Signal transduction and targeted therapy, 7(1), 48. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41392-022- 00904-4

 

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