‘Limited impact’ of US aid freeze on Pakistan growth

may have other indirect means of
influencing Pakistani policy apart
from halting military assistance
PRESSURE TACTICS: The US may have other indirect means of influencing Pakistani policy apart from halting military assistance


THE US’s freeze on billions in military as­sistance to Pakistan will have limited im­pact, thanks to its friendship with China and diminishing importance of aid to the economy, observers say – but there could be trouble if Washington calls in its debts.  

Exasperated by what it considers Islama­bad’s neglect in cracking down on militan­cy, Donald Trump’s administration last week announced a suspension of the aid, which also goes towards Afghanistan coali­tion funding.  

“They give safe haven to the terrorists we hunt in Afghanistan, with little help. No more!” president Donald Trump tweeted on New Year’s Day.  

An official said up to $2 billion (£1.45bn) of equipment and funding was at stake.  

However, with US aid declining signifi­cantly in recent years, the economy improv­ing and Beijing just a phone call away, sources revealed the negative effects would be “marginal” in the short to medium term.  

“International aid is not big in compari­son with the (size of the) country’s econo­my,” one Islamabad-based diplomat said. “Means of pressure are limited.”  

Former finance minister Hafeez Pasha said after the US invasion of Afghanistan in 2001, aid increased substantially, approach­ing $3bn-4bn (£2.17bn-£2.9bn) annually at its peak in 2010.  

“From there onwards, it’s been declining very sharply. Last year, it was around $750 million (£544m),” he said, a figure that when compared with the economy “is not a lot”.  

But officials in Washington have also hinted that they have other cards to play – such as calling in vital International Mone­tary Fund (IMF) loans.  

Pakistan’s economy is currently stable and growing, said senior World Bank econ­omist Muhammad Waheed.  

But it is also financed through the World Bank, the IMF and the Asian Development Bank, all institutions to which Washington is a major creditor.  

“There are structural issues like low tax revenues and growing trade deficit, which government needs to tackle,” Waheed add­ed, warning of a looming balance of pay­ments crisis.  

Pakistan’s foreign exchange reserves are sharply down, forcing the country to bor­row if it wants to continue to grow, analysts have said.  

In December, Islamabad raised $2.5bn (£1.8bn) in international bonds, a transac­tion described as “successful” by Waheed.  

But Washington’s power gives it an indi­rect weapon to wield over Pakistan, warned security analyst Rahimullah Yousafzai.  

“It can use its influence in the UN Secu­rity Council, IMF, World Bank, Asian Devel­opment Bank,” he said.  

The Washington-based IMF has bailed out Pakistan before, with an $11.3bn (£8.2bn) loan package in 2008 to stave off a balance of payments crisis in a deal Islamabad abandoned in 2011.  

The country received a second $6.7bn (£4.9bn) IMF bailout package in 2013.  

“Pakistan needs the support of the Unit­ed States… because the US is a major share­holder of those organisations,” agreed Ash­faque Hasan, an economist on Pakistan’s economic advisory council.  

He recalled that in 1998 the IMF imposed a $20m (£14.5m) fine on Pakistan, hit by a credit freeze after its nuclear tests.  

But weeks after the September 11 attacks on the US, the IMF released $135m (£98m) for Pakistan as it aligned itself as a major ally of Washington ahead of the US invasion of Afghanistan.  

Now, however, Pakistani officials believe they also have a growing friendship with China to play on.  

“If the US starts to bully, blame, threaten, we have other options,” said senator Mush­ahid Hussain Sayed, referring to China, which rushed to defend Pakistan’s record on militancy after the US announcement.  

Questions remain over how much Bei­jing, which is already investing some $60bn (£43.5bn) in Pakistani infrastructure and has Islamist militancy on its borders, would be willing to prop up its “all-weather” friend.  

But Sayed was bullish. Suspending aid, he said, is “a failed formula”